Predator exaptations and defensive adaptations in evolutionary balance: No defence is perfect

Reuven Yosef, Douglas W. Whitman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The lubber grasshopper, Romalea guttata, is large, aposematic, and extremely toxic. In feeding trials with 21 bird and lizard species, none were able to consume this chemically defended prey. Predators that attempted to eat lubbers, often gagged, regurgitated, and sometimes died. Loggerhead shrikes, Lanius ludovicianus, regularly impale this toxic prey in peninsular Florida. They, like other bird species, are unable to consume fresh lubbers. However, our tests show that they are able to consume lubbers if the prey are allowed to 'age' for 1-2 days. This suggests that lubber toxins degrade following death and that shrike impaling behaviour serves as a preadaptation for overcoming the toxic defences of this large and abundant prey. These results also imply that counter adaptations against chemical defences need not involve major morphological or metabolic specializations, but that simple behavioural traits can enable a predator to utilize toxic prey.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-536
Number of pages10
JournalEvolutionary Ecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Lanius ludovicianus
  • Romalea guttata
  • chemical defences
  • defensive behaviour
  • impaling
  • predation


Dive into the research topics of 'Predator exaptations and defensive adaptations in evolutionary balance: No defence is perfect'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this