Prediction and modeling of line-of-sight bending near ground level for long atmospheric paths

S. Bendersky, N. Kopeika, N. Blaunstein

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Line-of-sight bending, called "beam bending", is an effect caused by strong atmospheric turbulence, where during daytime targets are seen lower and during nighttime higher than their real locations. This effect takes place in conditions of very low or absence of wind speed and relatively high turbulence, which characterize non-uniform atmospheres. During past three years high-resolution experiments in different desert and low vegetation areas of the Middle East (Israel) were performed. A model for predicting line-of-sight bending based on effects of turbulence and atmospheric conditions, described by pressure, temperature, relative humidity, etc., was developed and investigated. This paper describes investigations made to parameterize this model based on high-percentage prediction of results for different areas, day/night time, and heights above the ground surface.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04
Pages (from-to)29-40
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2004
EventTarget-in-the-Loop: Atmospheric Tracking, Imaging, and Compensation - Denver, CO, United States
Duration: 4 Aug 20045 Aug 2004


  • Beam bending
  • Line-of-sight
  • Optical turbulence
  • Refractive index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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