Objectives. To assess the usefulness of measuring testosterone, free testosterone, and the free/total (f/t) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ratio with the intention of reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies in the patients with PSA values between 2.0 and 4.0 ng/mL. Cancer detection is not rare among patients with PSA values between 2.0 and 4.0 ng/mL. Methods. A total of 171 men with serum PSA levels of 2.0 to 4.0 ng/mL were enrolled in this study. The f/t PSA ratio and total and free testosterone levels were quantified. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The cancer detection rate, clinical and pathologic features of the cancers detected, and the probability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and total and free testosterone levels were estimated. Two-step statistical analysis was used for descriptive purposes and in the detection of cancer predictors. Statistical significance was set at P ≤0.05. Results. The mean patient age was 63.3 years. Cancer was detected in 39 (22.8%) of the 171 patients. Only 15.4% of our patients had insignificant cancer. The f/t PSA ratio and total and free testosterone levels were significantly lower in the patients with prostate cancer (19.3%, 13.68 nmol/L, and 28.4 pmol/L, respectively; P <0.001). The f/t PSA ratio and free testosterone were the strongest predictors of cancer detection (P <0.001). The results of our study have shown that an important number of cancers could be detected in the PSA range of 2.0 to 4.0 ng/mL. The great majority of cancers detected have the features of medically significant tumors. Conclusions. The combination of the f/t PSA ratio and free testosterone measurements may reveal those patients who require biopsy.
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