Preimplantation genetic diagnosis versus prenatal diagnosis—decision-making among pregnant FMR1 premutation carriers

Lilach Marom Haham, Inbal Avrahami, Noam Domniz, Liat Ries-Levavi, Michal Berkenstadt, Raoul Orvieto, Yoram Cohen, Shai E. Elizur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: To detect which factors influence decision-making among pregnant FMR1 premutation carriers regarding the preferred mode of genetic diagnosis: IVF-PGT-M (in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic gene diseases), or CVS (chorionic villus sampling), or AC (amniocentesis) after spontaneous conception. Methods: In Israel FMR1 premutation preconception genetic screening is offered, free of charge, to every woman in her reproductive years. FMR1 premutation carriers with ≥ 70 CGG repeats, or a history of FXS offspring, are offered IVF-PGT-M. This is a historical cohort study including all pregnant FMR1 premutation carriers who underwent prenatal diagnosis between the years 2011 and 2016 at a tertiary medical center. Data were collected from electronic charts and through phone interviews. Results: One hundred seventy-five women with high-risk pregnancies who were offered IVF-PGT-M were evaluated. In 37 pregnancies (21%), the women decided to undergo IVF-PGT-M. Using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical method including seven parameters, we found that previous termination of pregnancy due to FXS and advanced woman’s age were significantly associated with making the decision to undergo IVF-PGT-M. Previously failed IVF was the most significant parameter in a woman’s decision not to undergo IVF-PGT-M. Conclusion: The most dominant factor affecting the decision of FMR1 premutation carriers to choose spontaneous conception with prenatal diagnosis versus IVF-PGT-M is a previous experience of failed IVF treatments. Women whose IVF treatments failed in the past tended to try to conceive naturally and later, during the course of the pregnancy, perform CVS or AC. Conversely, women who previously experienced a termination of pregnancy (TOP) due to an affected fetus, and older women, preferred to undergo IVF-PGT-M procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2071-2075
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • AC
  • CVS
  • FMR1 premutation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics(clinical)


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