Prevalence of Long-COVID Among Low-Income and Marginalized Groups: Evidence From Israel

Oren Heller, Yung Chun, Stav Shapira, Aron Troen, Yaniv Shlomo, Mary Acri, Phillip Marotta, Saneel Kulkarni, Brendan Kinnison, Michal Grinstein-Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: To identify the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with the prevalence of self-reported long-COVID symptoms. Method: We examined the association between acute-COVID (SARS-CoV-2) and long-COVID symptoms, by a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained on a prospective online-survey, conducted from November to December 2021 on a nationally-representative sample of the Israeli population (N = 2,246). Results: Findings suggest that there is a greater likelihood of experiencing long-COVID symptoms among low-income and among marginalized groups. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic attributes, those who had moderate/severe acute-COVID were 1.3 (p < 0.05) times more likely to experience a long-term symptom and also reported more long-term symptoms (2.2 symptoms) than those who have not been infected (1.4 symptoms; p < 0.01). Among the low-income group, a larger gap in symptom count was found between those who had moderate/severe acute-COVID (3.3 symptoms) and those who had not been infected (1.8 symptoms, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of raising awareness of long-COVID among marginalized population groups, and to the therapeutic options available. Such efforts should be tailored and should consider the unique socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, as well as the preexisting low access to healthcare services among these groups.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1605086
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
StatePublished - 28 Nov 2022


  • Israel
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • health inequalites
  • long-COVID
  • low-income
  • marginalized groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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