Purpose: The aim of the study was to estimate the current incidence and the distribution of etiologies of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in a nationwide study. The prevalence of POI in young adult women has recently increased, but the data cited for adolescents are more than three decades old. Methods: Data regarding females aged <21 years diagnosed with POI during the years 2000–2016 were collected from all the pediatric endocrinology units in Israel. POI was defined by at least 4 months of amenorrhea in association with menopausal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone. Iatrogenic cases were excluded. Results: For the 130 females aged <21 years included in the study, the distribution of POI etiologies was Turner syndrome/mosaicism in 56 (43%), idiopathic in 35 (27%), and other (developmental, genetic, metabolic, adrenal, and autoimmune) in 39 (30%) females. During the years 2009–2016, compared with 2000–2008, the incidence rate of new POI diagnoses per 100,000 person-years doubled (4.5 vs. 2.0; p value <.0001), and incidence rates of idiopathic and other etiologies increased by 2.6 (p value =.008) and 3.0 (p value =.002), respectively. In contrast, the incidence of Turner syndrome was constant (p value =.2). In the age group of 15–21 years, the current incidence of non-Turner POI in adolescents is one per 100,000 person-years. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, the incidence rate of POI in youth aged <21 years was one tenth of the rate that is commonly cited. A significant increase in the rate of POI in non-Turner females was observed over the last decade. Contributions of environmental and epigenetic factors should be studied.
- Hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism
- Primary ovarian insufficiency
- Turner syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Psychiatry and Mental health