Proactive Monitoring of Adalimumab Trough Concentration Associated With Increased Clinical Remission in Children With Crohn's Disease Compared With Reactive Monitoring

Amit Assa, Manar Matar, Dan Turner, Efrat Broide, Batia Weiss, Oren Ledder, Anat Guz-Mark, Firas Rinawi, Shlomi Cohen, Chani Topf-Olivestone, Ron Shaoul, Baruch Yerushalmi, Raanan Shamir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background & Aims: Proactive monitoring of drug trough concentrations and antibodies against drugs might help determine whether patients are likely to respond to treatment and increase efficacy. We investigated whether proactive drug monitoring is associated with higher rates of clinical remission in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: We performed a nonblinded, randomized controlled trial of 78 children with CD (6–18 years old; 29% female; mean age, 14.3 ± 2.6 years) who had not received prior treatment with a biologic agent but had responded to adalimumab induction therapy, under scheduled monitoring of clinical and biologic measures (based on clinical factors and levels of C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin), at pediatric gastroenterology units in Israel from July 2015 through December 2018. The patients were randomly assigned to groups that received proactive monitoring (trough concentrations measured at weeks 4 and 8 and then every 8 weeks until week 72, n = 38) or reactive monitoring (physicians were informed of trough concentrations after loss of response, n = 40). In both groups, doses and intervals of adalimumab were adjusted to achieve trough concentrations of 5 μg/mL. The primary endpoint was sustained corticosteroid-free clinical remission at all visits (week 8 through week 72). Results: The primary endpoint was achieved by 31 children (82%) in the proactive group and 19 children (48%) in the reactive group (P = .002). Sixteen patients in the proactive monitoring group (42%) achieved a composite outcome of sustained corticosteroid-free remission, C-reactive protein ≤0.5 mg/dL, and level of fecal calprotectin ≤150 μg/g compared with 5 patients in the reactive monitoring group (12%) (P = .003). By week 72 of treatment, 33 patients in the proactive monitoring group had received adalimumab intensification (87%) compared with 24 patients in the reactive monitoring group (60%) (P = .001). Conclusions: In a randomized controlled trial of pediatric patients with CD, we found that proactive monitoring of adalimumab trough concentrations and adjustment of doses and intervals resulted in significantly higher rates corticosteroid-free clinical remission than reactive monitoring (measuring trough concentration after loss of response). Clinicaltrials.gov no.: NCT02256462.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)985-996.e2
JournalGastroenterology
Volume157
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Anti-drug Antibody
  • Inflammation
  • Prognostic Factor
  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

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