Probabilities of moderately atypical fluctuations of the size of a swarm of Brownian bees

Pavel Sasorov, Arkady Vilenkin, Naftali R. Smith

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The "Brownian bees"model describes an ensemble of N= const independent branching Brownian particles. The conservation of N is provided by a modified branching process. When a particle branches into two particles, the particle which is farthest from the origin is eliminated simultaneously. The spatial density of the particles is governed by the solution of a free boundary problem for a reaction-diffusion equation in the limit of N≫1. At long times, the particle density approaches a spherically symmetric steady-state solution with a compact support of radius ℓ¯0. However, at finite N, the radius of this support, L, fluctuates. The variance of these fluctuations appears to exhibit a logarithmic anomaly [Siboni, Phys. Rev. E 104, 054131 (2021)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.104.054131]. It is proportional to N-1lnN at N→∞. We investigate here the tails of the probability density function (PDF), P(L), of the swarm radius, when the absolute value of the radius fluctuation ΔL=L-ℓ¯0 is sufficiently larger than the typical fluctuations' scale determined by the variance. For negative deviations the PDF can be obtained in the framework of the optimal fluctuation method. This part of the PDF displays the scaling behavior lnP -NΔL2ln-1(ΔL-2), demonstrating a logarithmic anomaly at small negative ΔL. For the opposite sign of the fluctuation, ΔL>0, the PDF can be obtained with an approximation of a single particle, running away. We find that lnP -N1/2ΔL. We consider in this paper only the case when |ΔL| is much less than the typical radius of the swarm at N≫1.

Original languageEnglish
Article number014140
JournalPhysical Review E
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability


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