Proper Jordan schemes exist. First examples, computer search, patterns of reasoning. An essay

Research output: Working paper/PreprintPreprint


A special class of Jordan algebras over a field $F$ of characteristic zero is considered. Such an algebra consists of an $r$-dimensional subspace of the vector space of all square matrices of a fixed order $n$ over $F$. It contains the identity matrix, the all-one matrix; it is closed with respect to \correction{matrix transposition}, Schur-Hadamard (entrywise) multiplication and the Jordan product $A*B=\frac 12 (AB+BA)$, where $AB$ is the usual matrix product. The suggested axiomatics (with some natural additional requirements) implies an equivalent reformulation in terms of symmetric binary relations on a vertex set of cardinality $n$. The appearing graph-theoretical structure is called a Jordan scheme of order $n$ and rank $r$. A significant source of Jordan schemes stems from the symmetrization of association schemes. Each such structure is called a non-proper Jordan scheme. The question about the existence of proper Jordan schemes was posed a few times by Peter J. Cameron. In the current text an affirmative answer to this question is given. The first small examples presented here have orders $n=15,24,40$. Infinite classes of proper Jordan schemes of rank 5 and larger are introduced. A prolific construction for schemes of rank 5 and order $n=\binom{3^d+1}{2}$, $d\in {\mathbb N}$, is outlined. The text is written in the style of an essay. The long exposition relies on initial computer experiments, a large amount of diagrams, and finally is supported by a number of patterns of general theoretical reasonings. The essay contains also a historical survey and an extensive bibliography.
Original languageEnglish GB
PublisherarXiv:1911.06160 [math.CO]
StatePublished - 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'Proper Jordan schemes exist. First examples, computer search, patterns of reasoning. An essay'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this