This study aimed to assess the effects of anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, on behavioral responses, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA levels, and circulating corticosterone in rats-when administered before or after initial exposure to a predator scent stress stimulus. Magnitude of changes in prevalence of anxiety-like behaviors on the elevated plus-maze and exaggerated startle reaction as well as corticosterone levels and mRNA BDNF and TrkB were compared in rats exposed to predator stress, microinjected with anisomycin before or after stress exposure. Administration of anisomycin before or after stress exposure reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and reduced the mean startle amplitude 7 days postexposure. Although the behavioral responses were similar when anisomycin was microinjected before or after stress exposure, the levels of mRNAs for BDNF and TrkB, which play a role in modulation of synaptic plasticity and the consolidation process, showed varying responses. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.