Proximodistal Gradient in the Perception of Delayed Stiffness

Ilana Nisky, Amir Karniel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction of successful telerehabilitation into the variety of techniques that are available to the therapist will forever change the field of rehabilitation. Accurate perception of the remote environment's mechanical properties and of stiffness in particular is extremely important for successful telerehabilitation. In the current study we present the framework for exploring perception of delayed stiffness when probing is executed using movement with different joints, and provide experimental results supporting the existence of proximodistal gradient in the perception of delayed stiffness. We found that delayed stiffness was underestimated to a larger extent after probing with wrist than with elbow. We suggest that the observed gradient in perception reveals a proximodistal gradient in control: proximal joints are dominated by force control, whereas distal joints are dominated by position control.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2009 Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference, VR 2009
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9781424441891
StatePublished - 12 Nov 2009
Event2009 Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference, VR 2009 - Haifa, Israel
Duration: 29 Jun 20092 Jul 2009


Conference2009 Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference, VR 2009


  • Delay
  • Force control
  • Haptics
  • Human motor control
  • Impedance control
  • Perception
  • Position control
  • Proximodistal gradient
  • Stiffness
  • Telerehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Software
  • Biomedical Engineering


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