## Abstract

A probabilistic algorithm A is pseudodeterministic if, on every input, there exists a canonical value that is output with high probability. If the algorithm outputs one of k canonical values with high probability, then it is called a k-pseudodeterministic algorithm. In the study of pseudodeterminism, the Acceptance Probability Estimation Problem (APEP), which is to additively approximate the acceptance probability of a Boolean circuit, is emerging as a central computational problem. This problem admits a 2-pseudodeterministic algorithm. Recently, it was shown that a pseudodeterministic algorithm for this problem would imply that any multi-valued function that admits a k-pseudodeterministic algorithm for a constant k (including approximation algorithms) also admits a pseudodeterministic algorithm (Dixon, Pavan, Vinodchandran; ITCS 2021). The contribution of the present work is two-fold. First, as our main conceptual contribution, we establish that the existence of a pseudodeterministic algorithm for APEP is fundamentally related to the gap between probabilistic promise classes and the corresponding standard complexity classes. In particular, we show the following equivalence: APEP has a pseudodeterministic approximation algorithm if and only if every promise problem in PromiseBPP has a solution in BPP. A conceptual interpretation of this equivalence is that the algorithmic gap between 2-pseudodeterminism and pseudodeterminism is equivalent to the gap between PromiseBPP and BPP. Based on this connection, we show that designing pseudodeterministic algorithms for APEP leads to the solution of some open problems in complexity theory, including new Boolean circuit lower bounds. This equivalence also explains how multi-pseudodeterminism is connected to problems in SearchBPP. In particular, we show that if APEP has a pseudodeterministic algorithm, then every problem that admits a k(n)-pseudodeterministic algorithm (for any polynomial k) is in SearchBPP and admits a pseudodeterministic algorithm. Motivated by this connection, we also explore its connection to probabilistic search problems and establish that APEP is complete for certain notions of search problems in the context of pseudodeterminism. Our second contribution is establishing query complexity lower bounds for multi-pseudodeterministic computations. We prove that for every k ≥ 1, there exists a problem whose (k+1)-pseudodeterministic query complexity, in the uniform query model, is O(1) but has a k-pseudodeterministic query complexity of ω(n), even in the more general nonadaptive query model. A key contribution of this part of the work is the utilization of Sperner's lemma in establishing query complexity lower bounds.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | STOC 2022 - Proceedings of the 54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing |

Editors | Stefano Leonardi, Anupam Gupta |

Publisher | Association for Computing Machinery |

Pages | 1552-1565 |

Number of pages | 14 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9781450392648 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 6 Sep 2022 |

Event | 54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2022 - Rome, Italy Duration: 20 Jun 2022 → 24 Jun 2022 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing |
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ISSN (Print) | 0737-8017 |

### Conference

Conference | 54th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2022 |
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Country/Territory | Italy |

City | Rome |

Period | 20/06/22 → 24/06/22 |

## Keywords

- circuit lower bounds
- completeness
- hierarchy theorems
- probabilistic computations
- promise problems
- pseudodeterminism
- query complexity

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Software