In disenfranchised communities, untreated greywater (wastewater without sewage) is often environmentally discharged, resulting in potential human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB), including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. We sought to examine the abundance of ARB, specifically ESBLs, and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in greywater from off-grid, pastoral Bedouin villages in Southern Israel. Greywater samples (n = 21) collected from five villages were analyzed to enumerate fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. ESBL producers were recovered on CHROMagar ESBL and confirmed by VITEK®2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Total genomic DNA was extracted from greywater samples and quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine relative abundance (gene copies/16S rRNA gene) of class 1 integron-integrase intI1, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-32, sul1, and qnrS. The mean count of presumptive ESBL-producing isolates was 4.5 x 106 CFU/100 mL. Of 81 presumptive isolates, 15 ESBL producers were recovered. Phenotypically, 86.7% of ESBL producers were multi-drug resistant. Results from qPCR revealed a high abundance of intI1 (1.4 x 10-1 gene copies/16S rRNA), sul1 (5.2 x 10-2 gene copies/16S rRNA), and qnrS (1.7 x 10-2 gene copies/16S rRNA) followed by blaTEM (3.5 x 10-3 gene copies/16S rRNA) and blaCTX-M-32 (2.2 x 10-5 gene copies/16S rRNA). Results from our study indicate that greywater can be a source of ARB, including ESBL producers, in settings characterized by low sanitary conditions and inadequate wastewater management.
- Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG)
- Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Aquatic Science
- Water Science and Technology