Quantum refrigerators in quest of the absolute zero

Ronnie Kosloff, Eitan Geva, Jeffrey M. Gordon

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    83 Scopus citations


    The second and third laws of thermodynamics can be used to establish a fundamental bound for the maximum possible cooling rate in approaching the absolute zero of temperature. In modeling the behavior of the molecular refrigerators geared toward attaining ultralow temperatures, only quantum mechanical, as opposed to classical physics, models can be admissible. As a simple model, we analyze a three-level quantum refrigerator, and in particular its irreversible thermodynamic performance as absolute zero is approached.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8093-8097
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Applied Physics
    Issue number11
    StatePublished - 1 Jun 2000

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physics and Astronomy (all)


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