Quasi-digital front-ends for current measurement in integrated circuits with giant magnetoresistance technology

Andrea De Marcellis, María Dolores Cubells-Beltrán, Candid Reig, Jordi Madrenas, Boris Zadov, Eugene Paperno, Susana Cardoso, Paulo P. Freitas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


In this study, the authors report on two different electronic interfaces for low-power integrated circuits electric current monitoring through current-to-frequency (I-f) conversion schemes. This proposal displays the intrinsic advantages of the quasidigital systems regarding direct interfacing and self-calibrating capabilities. In addition, as current-sensing devices, they have made use of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) technology because of its high sensitivity and compatibility with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Single elements and Wheatstone bridges based on spin-valves and magnetic tunnel junctions have been considered. In this sense, schematic-level simulations for integration in Austria Microsystems 0.35 μm technology have been corroborated by means of experimental measurements with the help of printed circuit board prototypes and real GMR devices. Tables with relevant parameters (silicon area, power consumption, sensitivity etc.) have been constructed as practical tools for designers. Electric currents down to 2 μA have been resolved in this way.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-300
Number of pages10
JournalIET Circuits, Devices and Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Quasi-digital front-ends for current measurement in integrated circuits with giant magnetoresistance technology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this