Radiation Awareness and X-Ray Use in Cardiology: An International Independent Web-Based Survey

Andrea Ballatore, Michela Casella, Francisco Moscoso Costa, Marzia Giaccardi, Moti Haim, Inga Jóna Ingimarsdóttir, Nathan Mewton, Clara Van Ofwegen-Hanekamp, Pierre Ollitrault, Agnieszka Pawlak, Arian Sultan, Mariya Tokmakova, Christos Varounis, Vanessa Weberndörfer, Filip Zemrak, Matteo Anselmino

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Background. Cardiologists are today exposed to a growing dose of ionising radiation in their practice. Radiation awareness and correct management of X-ray use are the cornerstone to comply with the principles of exposure optimization and justification. Methods and Results. An investigator-initiated international voluntary-based survey including 28 questions was conducted across 19 European countries. 228 cardiologists participated in the survey. Invasive cardiology subspecialties were the most represented (83.6%). Radiation exposure is the cause of personal protective equipment-related orthopaedic injuries (personally or in coworkers) or anxiety in 68.5% and 62.9% of cases, respectively. 38.4% of participants have encountered difficulties in having their institutions recognizing periods off work for exceeding radiation exposure limit (16.3% usually and 22.1% on rare occasions). Gender was not associated with any difference in the answers. Age older than 40 years old was associated with an increased knowledge of personal dosimeter data (71.6% vs. 51.3%, p=0.008). Invasive cardiologists more frequently suffer from orthopaedic injuries (73.0% vs. 44.8%, p=0.006) and show greater participation to radioprotection courses (78.4 vs. 27.6%, p<0.001). Conclusion. European cardiologists show appropriate awareness of the risks associated with X-ray use in medical practice and of the principles guiding a proper management of radiation hazard. However, there is still room for improvement, and institutions should promote risk education policies, which are the basis for the creation and diffusion of a community consciousness on radiation hazard.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2247603
    JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiology
    StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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