Normalizing the convergence coefficient of the block frequency-domain least mean square (LMS) algorithm in each frequency bin can improve the convergence rate, but in some applications can lead to a biased steady-state solution if the filter is constrained to be strictly causal. An algorithm is presented in which the spectral factors of the bin-normalized convergence coefficient are used before and after the causality constraint is applied in the adaptation algorithm, which converges rapidly to the optimal causal filter.
- Adaptive filtering
- Frequency-domain implementation
- LMS algorithm
- Spectral factorization