Real-Time Audiovisual Feedback Training Improves Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performance: A Controlled Study

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5 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the effect of teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using a real-time audiovisual feedback manikin system on first-year medical student's CPR performance. Methods: This is a prospective, manikin-based intervention study, including 2 consecutive classes of medical school students enlisted to a mandatory first aid course. One class (control group) was taught using manikin-based standard CPR education models. The second class (intervention group) was taught similarly, but with the addition of real-time CPR quality feedback provided by the manikins. Students' performance was assessed using a standardized Objective Structured Clinical Examination scenario, during which no real-time feedback was provided. Critical CPR parameters were measured including compression depth, chest recoil, ventilation volume, and "hands-off" time. Results: A total of 201 participants were included in the study, 106 in the control group and 95 in the intervention group. Baseline demographic characteristics and previous medical knowledge were similar for the 2 groups. A significant improvement was observed for all primary study outcomes in favor of the real-time feedback group for median (interquartile range) chest compression fraction [57 (52.75%-60%) vs. 49 (43%-55%), P < 0.001], compressions with adequate depth [66.5 (19.5%-95.25%) vs. 0 (0%-12%), P < 0.001], ventilations with adequate volume [68.5 (33%-89%) vs. 37 (0%-70%), P < 0.00], and a simulator-derived composite "total CPR score" [39 (24%-61.25%) vs. 13 (3.5%-22%), P < 0.001]. In multiple regression analysis, the real-time feedback group's performance was significantly better than the control group in all primary outcomes, adjusting for participant's characteristics of age, sex, and body mass index. Conclusions: The use of audiovisual feedback techniques to teach CPR improves skill acquisition with significant improvement in crucial prognosis-improving parameters, as tested in a "no-feedback" test scenario.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-365
Number of pages7
JournalSimulation in Healthcare
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • audiovisual feedback
  • basic life support
  • manikin simulation
  • medical education
  • metronome
  • real-time feedback
  • simulation
  • training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • Modeling and Simulation


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