Reciprocal relations between depressive symptoms and self-criticism (but not dependency) among early adolescent girls (but not boys)

Golan Shahar, Sidney J. Blatt, David C. Zuroff, Gabriel P. Kuperminc, Bonnie J. Leadbeater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent criticism of theories of personality vulnerability to depression posits that personality may be an outcome, rather than a cause, of depressive symptoms. In this study, we address this criticism, focusing on the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism (S. J. Blatt & D. C. Zuroff, 1992). Dependency, self-criticism, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice over a 1-year interval in a large sample of early adolescent girls and boys. A vulnerability model, in which dependency and self-criticism influence depressive symptoms, was contrasted with a "scar" model, in which depressive symptoms influence dependency and self-criticism, and with a reciprocal causality model, in which both constructs influence each other over time. Cross-lagged analyses using structural equation modeling supported a reciprocal causality model involving self-criticism (but not dependency) among girls (but not boys). Results suggest that in early adolescence, girls' self-criticism and depressive symptoms contribute to a vicious phenomenological cycle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-103
Number of pages19
JournalCognitive Therapy and Research
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cross-lagged-design
  • Depression
  • Personality
  • Scar
  • Vulnerability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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