Recurrent pregnancy loss: Definitions, epidemiology, and prognosis

Asher Bashiri, Jamie L. Borick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) as two or more consecutive miscarriages. Extensive research has been performed in order to determine the etiologies of recurrent loss. However, epidemiologic inconsistencies across studies and lack of power in many studies have made diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations scarce. Completing the recommended work-up for RPL, etiology is determined in approximately 50 % of couples with RPL. Most of the diagnosed etiologies include endocrine abnormalities, autoimmune disorders, uterine anomalies, and genetic factors. Still, 50 % of couples have no known etiology after a full diagnostic work-up. Therefore, a multifaceted approach is warranted to generate a general prognosis for each couple. This chapter will discuss the epidemiologic characteristics of patients with RPL including the etiologies and the impact on the prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRecurrent Pregnancy Loss
Subtitle of host publicationEvidence-Based Evaluation, Diagnosis and Treatment
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9783319274522
ISBN (Print)9783319274508
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • Advanced maternal age
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Fetal aneuploidy
  • Hereditary thrombophilia
  • Miscarriage
  • Parental chromosomal aberrations
  • Primary RPL
  • Psychological support
  • Recurrent pregnancy loss
  • Secondary RPL
  • Unexplained RPL
  • Uterine anomalies


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