The area of sugars and glycosylation is not as well developed as other fields in cell biology owing to biotechnological constraints. However, the biotechnological potential of sugars, including polysaccharides, is the driving force pushing research efforts to meet the challenge. Algae produce cell-wall sulfated polysaccharides, with those of the red unicells, which dissolve into the medium, having unique characteristics-structure, composition, fluid dynamics, and extreme stability. These characteristics, combined with polysaccharide bioactivities, offer a vast range of potential applications. Research has thus been directed toward an in-depth understanding of the molecular structure, biosynthesis, and characteristics of the red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides and to the development of molecular-genetic tools, aiming at large-scale production for applications that can benefit humanity.