Relation of long-term exposure to air pollution to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and reactive hyperemia

Elissa H. Wilker, Petter L. Ljungman, Mary B. Rice, Itai Kloog, Joel Schwartz, Diane R. Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Joseph A. Vita, Gary F. Mitchell, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Naomi M. Hamburg, Murray A. Mittleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations

Abstract

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired vascular responses may, in part, explain these findings, but the association of such long-term exposure with measures of both conduit artery and microvascular function has not been widely reported. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to a major roadway (primary or secondary highway) and spatially resolved average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and baseline brachial artery diameter and mean flow velocity, flow-mediated dilation%, and hyperemic flow velocity, in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts. We examined 5,112 participants (2,731 [53%] women, mean age 49 ± 14 years). Spatially resolved average PM2.5 was associated with lower flow-mediated dilation% and hyperemic flow velocity. An interquartile range difference in PM2.5 (1.99 μg/m3) was associated with -0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.27%, -0.05%) lower flow-mediated dilation% and -0.72 (95% CI -1.38, -0.06) cm/s lower hyperemic flow velocity%. Residential proximity to a major roadway was negatively associated with flow-mediated dilation%. Compared with living ≥400 m away, living <50 m from a major roadway was associated with 0.32% lower flow-mediated dilation (95% CI -0.58%, -0.06%), but results for hyperemic flow velocity had wide confidence intervals -0.68 cm/s (95% CI -2.29, 0.93). In conclusion, residential proximity to a major roadway and higher levels of spatially resolved estimates of PM2.5 at participant residences are associated with impaired conduit artery and microvascular function in this large community-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2057-2063
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume113
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2014

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