Relativistic particle-like structures associated with multi-soliton solutions of (1+2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation

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The Sine-Gordon equation in (1+2) dimensions has N-soliton solutions that propagate at velocities that are lower than the speed of light (c = 1), for any N greater tha or equal to 1. A first integral of the equation, which vanishes identically on the single soliton solution, maps multisoliton solutions onto structures that are localized around soliton junctions. The profile of such a structure obeys the (1+2)-dimensional linear wave equation, driven by a source term, which is constructed from a multisoliton solution of the Sine-Gordon equation. If the localized solutions of the source-driven wave equation are interpreted as mass densities, they emulate free, spatially extended, massive relativistic particles. This physical picture is summarized in terms of a Lagrangian density for a dynamical system, in which the Sine-Gordon equation and the linear wave equation are coupled by a small coupling term. The Euler-Lagrange equations of motion allow for solutions, which, in lowest order in the coupling constant are the soliton solutions of the Sine-Gordon equation, and the first-order component are the structures that emulate spatially extended relativistic particles.
Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 15 Oct 2013


  • nlin.SI
  • 35C08, 37K40


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