In recent years, individual access to clean water becomes one of the most critical challenges around the world owing to the presence of various toxic pollutants in water. Chromium is one of the important heavy metal pollutants and posing significant threat to human beings due to its severe adverse effects. Because of its potential adverse effects on humans and other species, remediation becomes an absolute necessity. Whilst many techniques have been reported for the removal of chromium ions from polluted water, adsorption-based technologies gained more consideration as being inexpensive, simple, easy handling, etc. Furthermore, bio-based adsorbents are being extensively studied over other adsorbents for the removal of chromium due to their excellent adsorption capability, non-toxicity, biodegradability and availability. Therefore, the foremost aim of this chapter is to review the various bio-based adsorbents used for the removal of chromium ions from polluted water.