Reverse Trigger Phenotypes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Elias Baedorf Kassis, Henry K. Su, Alexander R. Graham, Victor Novack, Stephen H. Loring, Daniel S. Talmor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rationale: Reverse triggering is an underexplored form of dyssynchrony with important clinical implications in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Objectives: This retrospective study identified reverse trigger phenotypes and characterized their impacts on VT and transpulmonary pressure. Methods: Fifty-five patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome on pressure-regulated ventilator modes were included. Four phenotypes of reverse triggering with and without breath stacking and their impact on lung inflation and deflation were investigated. Measurements and Main Results: Inflation volumes, respiratory muscle pressure generation, and transpulmonary pressures were determined and phenotypes differentiated using Campbell diagrams of respiratory activity. Reverse triggering was detected in 25 patients, 15 with associated breath stacking, and 13 with stable reverse triggering consistent with respiratory entrainment. Phenotypes were associated with variable levels of inspiratory effort (mean 4–10 cm H2O per phenotype). Early reverse triggering with early expiratory relaxation increased VTs (88 [64–113] ml) and inspiratory transpulmonary pressures (3 [2–3] cm H2O) compared with passive breaths. Early reverse triggering with delayed expiratory relaxation increased VTs (128 [86–170] ml) and increased inspiratory and mean-expiratory transpulmonary pressure (7 [5–9] cm H2O and 5 [4–6] cm H2O). Mid-cycle reverse triggering (initiation during inflation and maximal effort during deflation) increased VT (51 [38–64] ml), increased inspiratory and mean-expiratory transpulmonary pressure (3 [2–4] cm H2O and 3 [2–3] cm H2O), and caused incomplete exhalation. Late reverse triggering (occurring exclusively during exhalation) increased mean expiratory transpulmonary pressure (2 [1–2] cm H2O) and caused incomplete exhalation. Breath stacking resulted in large delivered volumes (176 [155–197] ml). Conclusions: Reverse triggering causes variable physiological effects, depending on the phenotype. Differentiation of phenotype effects may be important to understand the clinical impacts of these events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-77
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Volume203
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adult ventilator-induced lung injury
  • Mechanical respiratory distress syndrome
  • Ventilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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