Review of capabilities of the ENEPIG surface finish

Menahem Ratzker, Adam Pearl, Michael Osterman, Michael Pecht, George Milad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Surface finishes are used to protect exposed copper metallization in printed circuit boards from oxidation and to provide a solderable surface on which to mount electronic components. While it is true that some people have called electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) a "universal finish" for a wide range of applications from wire bonding to solder interconnects, this paper provides a review of the current literature on ENEPIG and assesses its overall capabilities compared to other surface finishes. Gaps in understanding the performance of ENEPIG as a printed wiring board surface finish are identified and further testing is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3885-3897
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • reliability
  • solder interconnects
  • surface finishes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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