Role of high energy breakfast “big breakfast diet” in clock gene regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia and weight loss in type 2 diabetes

Daniela Jakubowicz, Julio Wainstein, Shani Tsameret, Zohar Landau

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) is strongly linked with the future development of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hence, reducing postprandial glycemic excursions is essential in T2D treatment to slow progressive deficiency of β-cell function and prevent cardiovascular complications. Most of the metabolic processes involved in PPHG, i.e., β-cell secre-tory function, GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitivity, muscular glucose uptake, and hepatic glucose production, are controlled by the circadian clock and display daily oscillation. Consequently, post-prandial glycemia displays diurnal variation with a higher glycemic response after meals with the same carbohydrate content, consumed at dusk compared to the morning. T2D and meal timing schedule not synchronized with the circadian clock (i.e., skipping breakfast) are associated with disrupted clock gene expression and is linked to PPHG. In contrast, greater intake in the morning (i.e., high energy breakfast) than in the evening has a resetting effect on clock gene oscillations and beneficial effects on weight loss, appetite, and reduction of PPHG, independently of total energy intake. Therefore, resetting clock gene expression through a diet intervention consisting of meal timing aligned to the circadian clock, i.e., shifting most calories and carbohydrates to the early hours of the day, is a promising therapeutic approach to improve PPHG in T2D. This review will focus on recent studies, showing how a high-energy breakfast diet (Bdiet) has resetting and synchronizing actions on circadian clock genes expression, improving glucose metabolism, postprandial glycemic excursions along with weight loss in T2D.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1558
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2021

Keywords

  • Big breakfast 3
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Clock genes 2
  • PPHG 4
  • T2D 5

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