Role of Reynolds and Archimedes numbers in particle-fluid flows

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Any scientific behavior is best represented by nondimensional numbers. However, in many cases, for pneumatic conveying systems, dimensional equations are developed and used. In some cases, many of the nondimensional equations include Reynolds (Re) and Froude (Fr) numbers; they are usually defined for a limited range of materials and operating conditions. This study demonstrates that most of the relevant flow types, whether in horizontal or vertical pipes, can be better described by Re and Archimedes (Ar) numbers. Ar can also be used in hydraulic conveying systems. This paper presents many threshold velocities that are accurately defined by Re as a simple power function of Ar. Many particulate materials are considered by Ar, thereby linking them to a common behavior. Using various threshold velocities, a flow regime chart for horizontal conveying is presented in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-165
Number of pages17
JournalReviews in Chemical Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Archimedes number
  • Reynolds number
  • flow regime chart
  • hydraulic conveying
  • pneumatic conveying
  • threshold velocities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (all)


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