“Second wind” during inspiratory loading

Steven M. Scharf, Hylton Scharf, Dov Heimer, Arnon Cohen, Peter T. Macklem

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    5 Scopus citations


    Five human volunteers breathed through an inspiratory resister to achieve a transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) of 42–45% of the maximum, until fatigue. During the period of resistive breathing all subjects experienced at least one episode of a sudden feeling of relaxation and relief from dyspnea, i.e., “second wind.” These episodes were accompanied by a sudden decrease in the neural stimulation to the diaphragm as reflected in the electromyogram (EMG). Changes in lung volume or chest configuration were eliminated as was recruitment of accessory muscles of inspiration during the “second wind” thus, there appeared to be a change in the contractile function of the diaphragm such that the same force (Pdi) was achieved with less neural input. These results indicate that the phenomenon of “second wind” has physiologic correlates and may be subject to experimental verificationand manipulation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)87-91
    Number of pages5
    JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - 1 Jan 1984


    • Endurance
    • Inspiratory loading
    • Loaded breathing
    • Respiratory muscles
    • Second wind

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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