In different natural conditions, plants are subjected to an ample of enemies, which include both biotic and abiotic stress related to climate change. Normally every ecosystem constitutes of different kinds of bacteria, fungi, mites, insects, viruses, nematodes, mammals and other plant-eating animals that cause damage to crop productivity and are responsible for low crop yield. In addition, plants produce some organic chemicals generally termed as secondary metabolites to protect themselves from invading pathogens and different abiotic stress conditions. This book chapter represents a broad picture about the various mechanisms that plants have evolved to safeguard themselves from the various pathogenic organisms and different abiotic stresses, as well as their peculiar responses to pathogen attack and genetic engineering principles to cope up with biotic stress conditions.
- Abiotic stress
- Biotic stress
- Secondary metabolites
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology