Secret-Sharing Schemes for Very Dense Graphs

Amos Beimel, Oriol Farràs, Yuval Mintz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


A secret-sharing scheme realizes a graph if every two vertices connected by an edge can reconstruct the secret while every independent set in the graph does not get any information on the secret. Similar to secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, there are gaps between the known lower bounds and upper bounds on the share size for graphs. Motivated by the question of what makes a graph “hard” for secret-sharing schemes (that is, they require large shares), we study very dense graphs, that is, graphs whose complement contains few edges. We show that if a graph with (Formula presented.) vertices contains (Formula presented.) edges for some constant (Formula presented.) , then there is a scheme realizing the graph with total share size of (Formula presented.). This should be compared to (Formula presented.) , the best upper bound known for the total share size in general graphs. Thus, if a graph is “hard,” then the graph and its complement should have many edges. We generalize these results to nearly complete (Formula presented.) -homogeneous access structures for a constant (Formula presented.). To complement our results, we prove lower bounds on the total share size for secret-sharing schemes realizing very dense graphs, e.g., for linear secret-sharing schemes, we prove a lower bound of (Formula presented.) for a graph with (Formula presented.) edges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-362
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Cryptology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016


  • Complete bipartite covers
  • Equivalence covers
  • Graph access structures
  • Secret-sharing
  • Share size


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