'Seeing is believing' - Gender disparities in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery in Africa: A narrative review

Amina Seguya, Fiona Kabagenyi, Sharon Ovnat Tamir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose of reviewVarious factors affect otolaryngology - head and neck surgery (OHNS) services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); including inadequate infrastructure, limited academic positions, unfavorable hospital research policies, and traditional misconceptions about gender and surgery, among others. Although gender inequalities exist globally, they are particularly pronounced in LMICs, especially in Africa.Recent findingsA comparative narrative literature review for relevant manuscripts from January 1, 2017 to through January 10th, 2024, using PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar for articles from the United States/Canada and Africa was done. 195 relevant articles were from the United States/Canada, while only 5 were from Africa and only 1 manuscript was relevant to OHNS. The reviewed articles reported that gender disparities exist in medical training, authorship, and career advancement. We highlight possible solutions to some of these disparities to promote a more gender-diversified workforce in OHNS in Africa as well as all over the world.SummaryAdditional studies on gender disparities in Africa, are needed. These studies will highlight need for inclusive policies, structured and accessible mentorship programs; through which these disparities can be highlighted and addressed. This will in the long run ensure sustainability of OHNS care in LMICs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-192
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Africa
  • gender disparities
  • low- and middle-income countries
  • otolaryngology - head and neck surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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