The activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase in the serum was measured in patients with acute cardiac disorders who were admitted to a coronary care unit. The activity of the enzyme on admission was similar in patients with acute myocardial infarction and in those with other conditions; on discharge, the activity was reduced significantly. Patients with myocardial infarction had the greatest fall in the activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase. Patients with multiple signs of sympathetic hyperactivity had significantly higher values for the activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase on admission. Pain was found to significantly increase the activity of the enzyme. These data confirm findings that the activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase in the serum reflects the intensity of sympathetic activity. The factors contributing to the elevated sympathetic activity in some patients with acute myocardial infarction seem to be nonspecific, but because of the ominous nature of increased sympathetic tone in this condition, it could be advantageous to identify these patients.