Severe maternal infectious morbidity during the second half of pregnancy is an independent risk factor for a small for gestational age neonate

Tal Kedar, Offer Erez, Lena Novak, Ruth Beer Wiesel, Limor Besser, Elad Leron, Alex Rabinovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The effect of severe maternal infectious morbidity on fetal growth during the second half of pregnancy is under debate. Preliminary evidence suggests that such association may be plausible. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) The association between severe maternal infectious morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcome; and 2) The effect of maternal infection during pregnancy on fetal growth. Study design: This retrospective population – based cohort study included 4771 women who gave birth at our medical center during the study period. Parturients were allocated into two groups: 1) patients with severe maternal infection during the second half of pregnancy (n = 368); and 2) control group comprised of normal pregnant women who were matched to the study group by maternal age, gravidity and parity (n = 4403). Results: The severe maternal infection group included women with pneumonia (n = 198), pyelonephritis (n = 131), and viral pneumonitis (n = 39). In comparison to the normal patients group: 1) having had pneumonia during the second half of pregnancy was associated with increased rates of fetal growth restriction, placental abruption, fetal demise (P < 0.001, for all comparisons) and preeclampsia (P = 0.041); 2) Pyelonephritis during the second half of gestation was associated with higher rates of fetal growth restriction (P < 0.001), placental abruption (P = 0.006) and labor induction (P = 0.039). As a group, women with severe maternal infection had higher rates of small for gestational age neonates compared to normal parturients (P < 0.001). Among women with infections, only those who had pyelonephritis (P = 0.032) or pneumonia (P = 0.008), had a higher rate of small for gestational age neonates than those in the control group. After adjustment to confounding factors, maternal infection (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.085–1.85) and previous delivery of a small for gestational age neonate (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 2.02–3.19), were independent risk factors for the delivery of a small for gestational age neonate. Conclusion: Severe maternal infectious morbidity during the second half of pregnancy is an independent risk factor for the delivery of a small for gestational age neonate and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Both, pneumonia and pyelonephritis, during the second half of gestation affect fetal growth and are related to higher rates of small for gestational age neonates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-242
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Volume274
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Maternal infection
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumonitis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Small for gestational age (SGA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

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