Silicon Proven 1.8μm × 9.2 μm 65-nm Digital Bit Generator for Hardware Security Applications

David Zooker, Moshe Avital, Yoav Weizman, Alexander Fish, Osnat Keren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Many circuit/gate level countermeasures require randomness to provide immunity against power analysis attacks. These applications usually require up to 64 bit sequences at different locations in the design in parallel. While these sequences are not required to be truly random, they must be independent. In this brief, we present, for the first time, results of silicon proven compact bit generator (cBG). The measurements prove that cBGs are able to amplify random fluctuations in the supply voltage to successfully produce the required bit sequences. The results show that less than 0.00014 random bits (out of 4 bits) are lost because of the negligible dependence between neighbouring generators. Additionally, the generators produce high enough entropy (minimum of 0.9656 over 10 Mbits) so they can be used as distributed generators for gate level countermeasures. The generators were tested with clock frequencies up to 100 MHz and the measured energy per bit of a single generator is 45 pJ@100 MHz.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8764429
Pages (from-to)1713-1717
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Compact bit generator
  • hardware security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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