SodsBC: A Post-Quantum by Design Asynchronous Blockchain Framework

Shlomi Dolev, Bingyong Guo, Jianyu Niu, Ziyu Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a new framework for asynchronous permissioned blockchain with high performance and post-quantum security. The framework contains two quantum-secure asynchronous Byzantine fault tolerance (aBFT) protocols, SodsBC and SodsBC++. We leverage concurrent preprocessing to accelerate the preparation of three cryptographic objects for the repeated consensus procedure, including common random coins as the needed randomness, secret shares of symmetric encryption keys for censorship resilience, and nested hash values for external validation predicates. The key idea behind our design is that the concurrent preprocessing mechanism can be well-supported by the consensus process of blockchains. The consumed objects in a block have been generated and globally agreed upon in a previous block. All our preprocessed objects utilize proven or commonly believed to be post-quantum cryptographic tools to resist an adversary equipped with quantum computation capabilities. We evaluate our protocols and their competitors in AWS in a typical setting where, the number of participants is 100 and each block part has 20,000 transactions. The results show that SodsBC and SodsBC++ reduce the latency of two state-of-The-Art but quantum-sensitive competitors Honeybadger and Dumbo by 53% and 6%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3243588
Pages (from-to)47-62
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • Asynchronous BFT
  • blockchain consensus
  • concurrent preprocessing
  • nested hash
  • post-quantum
  • secret sharing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • General Computer Science


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