Sporadic culture-negative peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients - Absence of endotoxin in dialysate

Michael J. Hausmann, Robert Yulzari, Marina Vorobiov, Amos Douvdevani, Moshe Zlotnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in peritonitis may have either unwanted side effects or contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. It is tempting to use broad-spectrum antibiotics in cases of culture-negative peritonitis. This study examines whether Gram-negative agents have to be considered in the management of culture-negative peritonitis. Gram-negative agents are manifested by endotoxin easily detected by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. Methods: 138 episodes of Gram-negative and culture-negative peritonitis have been retrospectively analyzed; episodes of Gram-negative peritonitis were controls. Correlation between LAL and culture results was compared between the two groups. The LAL test was performed using a commercial kit by incubating a mixture of dialysate effluent and LAL reagent at 37°C. Development of a stable solid clot was considered positive. Results: In controls, 80 out of 117 Gram-negative peritonitis were LAL positive (68%). None of the 21 culture-negative episodes was LAL positive. In 7 recurrences of Gram-negative peritonitis, the LAL test turned from negative to positive but in none of the recurrences of culture-negative peritonitis. The difference in correlation was highly significant. Conclusions: Gram-negative organisms do not seem to be involved in sporadic culture-negative peritonitis. In episodes of peritonitis in which bacteriologic cultures stay negative for 48 h, initial coverage of Gram-negative organisms may be dropped.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)c1-c4
JournalNephron - Clinical Practice
Volume108
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2008

Keywords

  • Antibiotic therapy
  • Culture-negative peritonitis
  • Endotoxin
  • Glucan
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Limulus amebocyte lysate test
  • Peritoneal dialysis

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