Stacked Laser-Induced Graphene Joule Heaters for Desalination and Water Recycling

Najmul Haque Barbhuiya, Utkarsh Misra, Swatantra P. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The global scenario of water shortage and pollution has necessitated the use of advanced water treatment and desalination technologies. Solar interfacial evaporation has shown promising results for clean water generation but depends on the sunlight intensity, which changes over time and climatic conditions. Furthermore, the solar-driven interfacial evaporation cannot operate in the dark and is susceptible to salt deposition. Here, we have explored the Joule heating effect in laser-induced graphene (LIG)-based Joule heaters (JHs) for interfacial water evaporation under different applied voltages. The effect of stacking of Joule heaters has been explored and found to give an enhanced evaporation rate with less spatial footprint and energy consumption. The evaporation rate in a single-layer LIG JH reached ∼5 kg·m-2·h-1 under the application of 10 V. The JH area and its stacking effect on evaporation rate, spatial footprint, and energy consumption were investigated. An increase in evaporation rate by seven times and reduction of electrical energy consumption by three times has been demonstrated by three levels of stacking compared to its equivalent triple-area LIG JH. The enhanced performance of the stacking configuration could be due to the enhanced heat transfer from the bottom JH to the upper JH, thermal concentration, and reduced thermal losses to the environment. The single-layer LIG JH also gave ∼2 kg·m-2·h-1 evaporation rate under natural sunlight and environmental conditions, showing potential for solar interfacial evaporation. The JHs also showed excellent resistance to salt deposition with self-salt-cleaning capability under the tested conditions. These compact stacked JH systems could be integrated with renewable energy, which can be operated in the presence and absence of sunlight. Such compact JH systems with a lesser spatial footprint, enhanced evaporation rate, and reduced energy requirement can help in providing constant water evaporation for various applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10991-11002
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Nano Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - 26 Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Joule heating
  • energy consumption
  • interfacial evaporation
  • laser-induced graphene
  • stacking effect
  • thermal loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (all)


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