Coal-based thermal power plants cater to a larger fraction of power generation and supply in developing countries including India. However, after electrostatic precipitation of finer ash particles from flue gases, a huge amount of fly ash is produced in these plants as a solid waste. The fly ash consists of silica, alumina, oxides of iron, calcium, magnesium, heavy metals, and organic compounds. The disposal of fly ash in conventional ash ponds and landfills may further cause soil and groundwater pollution and requires proper management. This chapter provides a detailed review about the pollutions caused by the fly ash as well as current strategies for their collection, treatment, and recycling. Different strategies of recycling and reuse are reviewed and discussed including applications for construction materials and in pollution abatement, thus acting as a useful resource rather than a waste product.