1H LF-NMR Energy Relaxation Time Characterization of the Chemical and Morphological Structure of PUFA-Rich Linseed Oil During Oxidation With and Without Antioxidants

Maysa T. Resende, Charles Linder, Zeev Wiesman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


A major stability issue of food and other products containing lipids is their susceptibility to oxidation and the efficacy of endogenous or exogenous antioxidants that are sensitive to internal morphological and chemical structures which are difficult to characterize with current analytical methods. This work develops signal reconstruction of 1H LF-NMR spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) energy relaxation times into 2D T2 versus T1 peak graphs of the internal chemical and morphological arrangements within lipid materials, with the potential for efficient structural studies of lipid oxidation and antioxidant efficacy in complex foods. This novel NMR inverse Laplace transformation (ILT) signal processing reconstruction is now applied in a PUFA-rich linseed oil's thermal autoxidation and antioxidant efficacy study. To characterize antioxidant efficacy, it is important to understand the mechanism of oxidation and the chemical and morphological structural aspects. The initial steps of oxidation show a clear peak shift to shorter T2 versus T1 peak values, for the different poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which for mono-unsaturated and saturated FAs remain unchanged. These peak shifts are within an oxidation time period needed for hydroperoxides formation. For longer oxidation times a new set of T2 versus T1 peaks are generated with shorter T2 and stable and/or increased T1 values, suggesting formation of aldehydes and polymerized oxidation end products. The chemical changes of the fatty acids of linseed oil are confirmed by their gas chromatography analysis during the studied time interval. Similarly peroxides and aldehydes formation trends are confirmed by PV and p-ansidine tests, respectively for the same time points. Based on the oxidation study the control of T1 and T2 relaxation times by α tocopherol antioxidant is characterized. In effect α tocopherol antioxidant maintains peak stability during linseed oil's thermal autoxidation, in a 2D T2 versus T1 relaxation time graph of peaks assigned to chemical morphological structures, demonstrating α tocopherol's ability to minimize linseed oil's oxidation. Practical Application: Monitoring of food products oxidation and quality control. 1H LF-NMR T1 and T2 energy relaxation times reconstructed with PDCO into 2D spectra of material analysis has proven to be an advantageous tool to monitor complex chemical and morphological structural changes during the autoxidation of PUFA-rich linseed oil. It is suggested that an initial oxidation phase generates a shift, of the original linseed peaks along the T1 = T2 diagonal due to hydroperoxide formation. At longer oxidation times there is an accumulation of peaks below the diagonal line assigned to oligomeric/polymeric termination products, generating a significant “bending effect.” α tocopherol addition at effective concentrations is able to change this pattern of PUFA-rich linseed oil oxidation by blocking early peaks shift and late bending effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1800339
JournalEuropean Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2019


  • 2D H LF-NMR
  • PUFA
  • PV
  • antioxidants
  • oils
  • oxidation
  • p-ansidine
  • relaxation time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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