Bioartificial kidney (BAK) is attracting the focus of the research community. In this study, the efficacy of surface-functionalized poly(ether sulfone)-TPGS-graphene oxide composite hollow fiber membranes as a promising material for the single extracorporeal unit for BAK application was evaluated. The cytotoxicity was examined using human primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (hPTCs), and the removal of uremic toxins (urea, creatinine, phosphate, and lysozyme) from the toxin-spiked goat blood was measured. The surface-functionalized polymer composite membranes acted as a biocompatible material for attachment and proliferation of hPTCs, which was confirmed by microscopy studies, proliferation, and activity assays. The functional activity of these renal cells over this biocompatible membrane was also maintained. Remarkably, the functionalized composite membranes showed removal of urea (46.4 ± 3.5%), creatinine (52.2 ± 3.9%), phosphate (35.5 ± 2.7%), and lysozyme (11.2 ± 0.8%) from the toxin-spiked goat blood. Therefore, these obtained results showed that the surface-functionalized poly(ether sulfone)-TPGS-graphene oxide composite hollow fiber membranes are suitable for BAK application.
- cells functional activity
- human primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells
- surface-functionalized poly(ether sulfone) composite hollow fiber membranes
- uremic toxins clearance