On the Appalachian Plateau of New York and Pennsylvania plume patterns are present on surfaces of all cross-fold joints that cut siltstones, but they are not common on either cross-fold joints or strike joints cutting shales. Near Watkins Glen, New York, joints cutting siltstones display two types of plumose patterns; each particular type correlates with a specific cross-fold joint set. The more easterly striking cross-fold joints (345° i.e., N15°W), cutting thin siltstone beds embedded in thicker shale formations, have straight plume patterns with axes parallel to bedding. More westerly striking cross-fold joints (335°), cutting thick siltstone beds, have curved plume patterns with axes that either curve or show fan-like rhythmic patterns that alternately increase and decrease in intensity. Joints cutting only shales exhibit no distinct surface morphology other than long arcuate arrest lines. The fan-like rhythmic patterns of plumes suggest that these joints formed by a cyclic process (perhaps related to pore pressure variations) rather than by one massive rupture.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth-Surface Processes