Surrogacy: An important pathway to parenthood. A call for international standardization

Asher Bashiri, Yuval Cherlow, Talya Kresch-Jaffe

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This comprehensive review examines the multifaceted landscape of surrogacy, a revolutionary treatment for infertility. The study examines historical origins, shifting trends, medical considerations, psychological implications, legal complexities, international variations, and ethical dilemmas surrounding surrogacy. With the advent of assisted reproductive technology, gestational surrogacy allows intended parents a genetic connection to their child. Medical facets encompass indications for gestational surrogacy, drawing attention to maternal health risks and infertility factors. Evidence indicates that medical outcomes are comparable to conventional pregnancies, suggesting a viable reproductive solution for intended parents. Due to the complex nature of surrogacy psychological and emotional vulnerability is inevitable; yet studies underscore positive psychological well-being and satisfaction among gestational carriers (GCs), intended parents (IPs) and children. Surrogacy also has many religious dimensions, as each religion has its own perspective on the distinctive process of creating life and its outcomes, such as, the determination of the child's mother according to their beliefs. Legal considerations emerge as a fundamental aspect, with differing regulations globally. The review emphasizes the significance of comprehensive agreements to safeguard the rights and responsibilities of surrogates and IPs. The unique surrogacy laws in Israel serve as a noteworthy example, reflecting a progressive approach that provides a promising template to establish crucial international guidelines on surrogacy. The absence of international consensus necessitates attention from the global community to address key concerns, including the well-being of GCs, legal recognition for IPs, and the child's best interests, with the goal of establishing a universal standard of care in the field.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number104247
    JournalJournal of Reproductive Immunology
    StatePublished - 1 Jun 2024


    • Gestational carrier
    • Intended parents
    • Recurrent pregnancy loss
    • Surrogacy

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Obstetrics and Gynecology
    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Immunology
    • Reproductive Medicine


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