## Abstract

Let P be a set of points in the plane, representing transceivers equipped with a directional antenna of angle α and range r. The coverage area of the antenna at point p is a circular sector of angle α and radius r, whose orientation can be adjusted. For a given assignment of orientations, the induced symmetric communication graph (SCG) of P is the undirected graph, in which two vertices (i.e., points) u and v are connected by an edge if and only if v lies in u's sector and vice versa. In this paper we ask what is the smallest angle α for which there exists an integer n = n(α), such that for any set P of n antennas of angle α and unbounded range, one can orient the antennas so that (i) the induced SCG is connected, and (ii) the union of the corresponding wedges is the entire plane. We show (by construction) that the answer to this problem is α = π/2, for which n = 4. Moreover, we prove that if Q _{1} and Q _{2} are two quadruplets of antennas of angle π/2 and unbounded range, separated by a line, to which one applies the above construction, independently, then the induced SCG of Q_{1} ∪ Q_{2} is connected. This latter result enables us to apply the construction locally, and to solve the following two further problems. In the first problem (replacing omni-directional antennas with directional antennas), we are given a connected unit disk graph, corresponding to a set P of omni-directional antennas of range 1, and the goal is to replace the omni-directional antennas by directional antennas of angle π/2 and range r = O(1) and to orient them, such that the induced SCG is connected, and, moreover, is an O(1)-spanner of the unit disk graph, w.r.t. hop distance. In our solution and the spanning ratio is 9. In the second problem (orientation and power assignment), we are given a set P of directional antennas of angle π/2 and adjustable range. The goal is to assign to each antenna p, an orientation and a range r _{p}, such that the resulting SCG is (i) connected, and (ii) is minimized, where β ≥ 1 is a constant. For this problem, we devise an O(1)-approximation algorithm.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Algorithms for Sensor Systems - 8th International Symposium on Algorithms for Sensor Systems, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Autonomous Mobile Entities, ALGOSENSORS 2012, Revised Selected Papers |

Publisher | Springer Verlag |

Pages | 18-29 |

Number of pages | 12 |

ISBN (Print) | 9783642360916 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Jan 2013 |

Event | 8th International Symposium on Algorithms for Sensor Systems, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Autonomous Mobile Entities, ALGOSENSORS 2012 - Ljubljana, Slovenia Duration: 13 Sep 2012 → 14 Sep 2012 |

### Publication series

Name | Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) |
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Volume | 7718 LNCS |

ISSN (Print) | 0302-9743 |

ISSN (Electronic) | 1611-3349 |

### Conference

Conference | 8th International Symposium on Algorithms for Sensor Systems, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Autonomous Mobile Entities, ALGOSENSORS 2012 |
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Country/Territory | Slovenia |

City | Ljubljana |

Period | 13/09/12 → 14/09/12 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Theoretical Computer Science
- General Computer Science