Syndrome dimensions of the child behavior checklist and the teacher report form: A critical empirical evaluation

Catharina A. Hartman, Joop Hox, Judith Auerbach, Nese Erol, Antonio C. Fonseca, Gideon J. Mellenbergh, Torunn S. Nøvik, Jaap Oosterlaan, Alexandra C. Roussos, Ruth S. Shalev, Nelly Zilber, Joseph A. Sergeant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


The construct representation of the cross-informant model of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Samples were collected in seven different countries. The results are based on 13,226 parent ratings and 8893 teacher ratings. The adequacy of fit for the cross-informant model was established on the basis of three approaches: conventional rules of fit, simulation, and comparison with other models. The results indicated that the cross-informant model fits these data poorly. These results were consistent across countries, informants, and both clinical and population samples. Since inadequate empirical support for the cross-informant syndromes and their differentiation was found, the construct validity of these syndrome dimensions is questioned.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095-1116
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Oct 1999


  • Child behaviour
  • Classification
  • Concept of development
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Psychometrics
  • Symptomatology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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