Phosphorus incorporation into carbon can greatly modify its chemical, electronic, and thermal stability properties. To date this has been limited to low levels of phosphorus. Now a simple, large-scale synthesis of carbon–nitrogen–phosphorus (CNP) materials is reported with tunable elemental composition, leading to excellent thermal stability to oxidation and fire-retardant properties. The synthesis consists of using monomers that are liquid at high temperatures as the reaction precursors. The molten-state stage leads to good monomer miscibility and enhanced reactivity at high temperatures and formation of CNP materials with up to 32 wt % phosphorus incorporation. The CNP composition and fire-retardant properties can be tuned by modifying the starting monomers ratio and the final calcination temperature. The CNP materials demonstrate great resistance to oxidation and excellent fire-retardant properties, with up to 90 % of the materials preserved upon heating to 800 °C in air.
- carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus materials
- fire-retardant materials
- molten-state reactions
- tunable elemental composition
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemistry (all)