System Design As A Three-Phase Dual-loop (TPDL) Process: Typesof knowledge-applied sources of feedback, and studentdevelopment as independent learners

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study aimed at exploring how high school students
deal with designing an information system, for example,
for a small business or a medical clinic, the extent to
which students develop as independent learners while
working on their projects, and the factors that help or
hinder fostering students’ design skills. The three-phase
dual-loop (TPDL) model for system design is proposed,
according to which design consists of conceptual design,
structural design and detailed design, and includes a
human-driven feedback loop and an instrumentationdriven feedback loop. It was found that the design of a
real-life system is a complicated task for high school
students because it requires the integration of conceptual
knowledge, primarily in the phase of defining a system’s
objectives and planning its general structure, and
procedural knowledge, for example, in the phase of
handling the detailed design, implementation and testing.
The common situation in schools is that students learn
and practice using procedural knowledge, whereas
achieving conceptual knowledge is a long-term process.
Therefore, it is essential to engage students in design tasks
of increasing complexity from early stages in school in
order to enable them to accumulate experience and
construct their own knowledge about all phases of system
design.
Original languageEnglish GB
Pages (from-to)32-43
JournalDesign and Technology Education: an International Journal
Volume15
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2010

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