Systemic and mucosal IgA responses are variably induced in response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and are associated with protection against subsequent infection

Salma Sheikh-Mohamed, Baweleta Isho, Gary Y.C. Chao, Michelle Zuo, Carmit Cohen, Yaniv Lustig, George R. Nahass, Rachel E. Salomon-Shulman, Grace Blacker, Mahya Fazel-Zarandi, Bhavisha Rathod, Karen Colwill, Alainna Jamal, Zhijie Li, Keelia Quinn de Launay, Alyson Takaoka, Julia Garnham-Takaoka, Anjali Patel, Christine Fahim, Aimee PatersonAngel Xinliu Li, Nazrana Haq, Shiva Barati, Lois Gilbert, Karen Green, Mohammad Mozafarihashjin, Philip Samaan, Patrick Budylowski, Walter L. Siqueira, Samira Mubareka, Mario Ostrowski, James M. Rini, Olga L. Rojas, Irving L. Weissman, Michal Caspi Tal, Allison McGeer, Gili Regev-Yochay, Sharon Straus, Anne Claude Gingras, Jennifer L. Gommerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Although SARS-CoV-2 infects the upper respiratory tract, we know little about the amount, type, and kinetics of antibodies (Ab) generated in the oral cavity in response to COVID-19 vaccination. We collected serum and saliva samples from participants receiving two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and measured the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab. We detected anti-Spike and anti-Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) IgG and IgA, as well as anti-Spike/RBD associated secretory component in the saliva of most participants after dose 1. Administration of a second dose of mRNA boosted the IgG but not the IgA response, with only 30% of participants remaining positive for IgA at this timepoint. At 6 months post-dose 2, these participants exhibited diminished anti-Spike/RBD IgG levels, although secretory component-associated anti-Spike Ab were more stable. Examining two prospective cohorts we found that participants who experienced breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants had lower levels of vaccine-induced serum anti-Spike/RBD IgA at 2–4 weeks post-dose 2 compared to participants who did not experience an infection, whereas IgG levels were comparable between groups. These data suggest that COVID-19 vaccines that elicit a durable IgA response may have utility in preventing infection.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMucosal Immunology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

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