Technology policies and their effect on technology transfer from defense to civilian industries in Israel from 1967 to 1995 are explored. Defense technology policy is found to drive the growth of the defense industry and to limit defense conversion to commercialization initiatives developed primarily through intra-organizational technology transfer. The case of the Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) is presented. Also the development of national technology policy in Israel is traced and found wanting. Civilian and defense technology policies are found to be uncoordinated with each other and together are incapable of producing interorganizational technology transfer so as to significantly effect defense conversion on a wide number of economic actors particularly small firms. To achieve a socially effective defense conversion process (in which technologies are transferred from defense firms to many economic actors), the analysis suggests that a national technology policy should be designed and implemented under Prime Minister's leadership.