Terrestrial locomotion in penguins: It costs more to waddle

Berry Pinshow, Michael A. Fedak, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The energetic cost for walking is relatively higher for penguins than for other birds or for quadrupeds of similar body mass. The morphology of penguins seems to represent a compromise between aquatic and terrestrial locomotion wherein both energy economy and speed suffer when the birds move on land.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)592-594
Number of pages3
Issue number4278
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1977
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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